Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  



Significant Accounting Policies


There have been no material changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies as set forth in the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 under Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, except as disclosed in this note.


Basis of Presentation


The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared on a going concern basis in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) for interim financial reporting and as required by Regulation S-X, Rule 10-01. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including those which are normal and recurring) considered necessary for a fair presentation of the interim financial information have been included. When preparing financial statements in conformity with GAAP, the Company must make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures at the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Additionally, operating results for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2023. For further information, refer to the financial statements and footnotes included in the Company’s annual financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, which are included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 31, 2023.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, together with amounts disclosed in the related notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions used in these condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, the collectability of an insurance claims receivable, the fair value of financial instruments warrants, options and equity shares, the valuation of stock-based compensation, and the estimates and assumptions related to impairment analysis of in-process research and development assets.


Certain of the Company’s estimates could be affected by external conditions, including those unique to the Company and general economic conditions. It is reasonably possible that these external factors could have an effect on the Company’s estimates and may cause actual results to differ from those estimates.


Foreign Currency Translation


The Company’s reporting currency is the United States dollar. The functional currency of certain subsidiaries was the British Pound (“GBP”) (1.2345 and 1.2098 GBP to 1 US dollar, each as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively) for balance sheet accounts, while expense accounts are translated at the weighted average exchange rate for the period (1.2138 and 1.3413 GBP to 1 US dollar for each of the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively). Equity accounts are translated at historical exchange rates. The resulting translation adjustments are recognized in stockholders’ equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income.


Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of an entity from all sources other than investments by owners or distributions to owners and includes foreign currency translation adjustments as described above. During the quarter ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recorded other comprehensive income (loss) of $663 and ($728,081), respectively, as a result of foreign currency translation adjustments.


Foreign currency gains and losses resulting from transactions denominated in foreign currencies, including intercompany transactions, are included in results of operations. The Company recognized ($1,117) and ($142) of foreign currency transaction losses for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Such amounts have been classified within general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).


Intangible Assets and In-Process Research and Development (“IP R&D”)


Intangible assets consist of licensed patents held by Katexco Pharmaceuticals Corp. (“Katexco”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, as well as technology licenses acquired in connection with the July 2019, corporate restructuring completed between the Company and each of 180 Therapeutics L.P. (“180 LP”), Katexco and CannBioRex Pharmaceuticals Corp. (“CBR Pharma”), pursuant to which each of 180 LP, Katexco and CBR Pharma became wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company (the “Reorganization”). Licensed patents are amortized over the remaining life of the patent. Technology licenses represent the fair value of licenses acquired for the development and commercialization of certain licenses and knowledge. The technology licenses are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the underlying patents. It will be necessary to monitor and possibly adjust the useful lives of the licensed patents and technology licenses depending on the results of the Company’s research and development activities.


IP R&D assets represent the fair value assigned to technologies that were acquired on July 16, 2019 in connection with the Reorganization, which have not reached technological feasibility and have no alternative future use. IP R&D assets are considered to be indefinite-lived until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development projects. During the period that the IP R&D assets are considered indefinite-lived, they are tested for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if the Company becomes aware of any events occurring or changes in circumstances that indicate that the fair value of the IP R&D assets are less than their carrying amounts. If and when development is complete, which generally occurs upon regulatory approval, and the Company is able to commercialize products associated with the IP R&D assets, these assets are then deemed definite-lived and are amortized based on their estimated useful lives at that point in time. If development is terminated or abandoned, the Company may record a full or partial impairment charge related to the IP R&D assets, calculated as the excess of the carrying value of the IP R&D assets over their estimated fair value.


As of December 31, 2022, the carrying amount of the IP R&D assets on the balance sheet was $12,405,084 (which consists of carrying amounts of $1,462,084 and $10,943,000 related to the Company’s CBR Pharma subsidiary and its 180 LP subsidiary, respectively). Per the valuation obtained from a third party as of year-end, the fair market value of the Company’s IP R&D assets was determined to be $9,063,000 (which consisted of fair values of $0 and $9,063,000 related to the Company’s CBR Pharma subsidiary and 180 LP subsidiary, respectively). As of that measurement date, the carrying values of the CBR Pharma and 180 LP subsidiaries’ assets exceeded their fair market values by $1,462,084 and $1,880,000, respectively. As such, management determined that the consolidated IP R&D assets were impaired by $3,342,084 and, in order to recognize the impairment, the Company recorded a loss for this amount during the fourth quarter of 2022, which appeared as a loss on impairment to IP R&D assets on the income statement. This reduced the IP R&D asset balances of its CBR Pharma subsidiary and its 180 LP subsidiary to zero and $9,063,000, respectively, as of December 31, 2022; and the total consolidated IP R&D asset balance was $9,063,000 after impairment.


As of March 31, 2023, the carrying amount of the IP R&D assets on the balance sheet was $9,063,000 (which consists of a balance related to the Company’s 180 LP subsidiary); the Company typically assesses asset impairment on an annual basis unless a triggering event or other facts or circumstances indicate that an evaluation should be performed at an earlier date. At the end of the current period, the Company assessed general economic conditions, industry and market considerations, the Company’s financial performance and all relevant legal, regulatory, and political factors that might indicate the possibility of impairment and concluded that, when these factors were collectively evaluated, it is more likely than not that the asset is not impaired. The Company and its management will continue to perform intangible assets and IP R&D assets impairment testing on an annual basis, or as needed if there are changes to the composition of its reporting unit or facts or circumstances are present which indicate the possibility of impairment.


Net (Loss) Income Per Common Share


Basic net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, plus the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the common share equivalents had been issued (computed using the treasury stock or if converted method), if dilutive.


The following table details the net income (loss) per share calculation, reconciles between basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding, and presents the potentially dilutive shares that are excluded from the calculation of the weighted average diluted common shares outstanding, because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:


    For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
    2023     2022  
Net (loss) income   $ (4,762,078 )   $ 1,563,713  
Weighted average shares outstanding (denominator for basic earnings per share)     3,747,145       1,702,997  
Effects of dilutive securities:                
Assumed exercise of stock options, treasury stock method     -       442  
Dilutive potential common shares     -       442  
Weighted average shares and assumed potential common shares (denominator for diluted earnings per share, treasury method)     3,747,145       1,703,439  
Basic earnings per share   $ (1.27 )   $ 0.92  
Diluted earnings per share   $ (1.27 )   $ 0.92  


The following common share equivalents are excluded from the calculation of weighted average common shares outstanding, because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:


    For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
    2023     2022  
Options     152,045       134,550  
Warrants     3,435,728       557,696  
Total potentially dilutive shares     3,587,773       692,246  


Warrant, Option and Convertible Instrument Valuation


The Company has computed the fair value of warrants and options using a Black-Scholes model. The expected term used for warrants is the contractual life and the expected term used for options issued is the estimated period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding. The Company utilizes the “simplified” method to develop an estimate of the expected term of “plain vanilla” option grants. The Company is utilizing an expected volatility figure based on a review of the historical volatilities, over a period of time, equivalent to the expected life of the instrument being valued, of similarly positioned public companies within its industry. The risk-free interest rate was determined from the implied yields from U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds with a remaining term consistent with the expected term of the instrument being valued.


Subsequent Events


The Company has evaluated events that have occurred after the balance sheet date but before these condensed consolidated financial statements were issued. Based upon that evaluation, the Company did not identify any recognized or non-recognized subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the financial statements, except as disclosed in Note 11 - Subsequent Events.


Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements


Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting pronouncements, if currently adopted, would have a material effect on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.