DESCRIPTION OF THE REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, AS AMENDED
180 Life Sciences Corp., formerly KBL Merger Corp. IV (the “Company” or “we”) is incorporated in the state of Delaware. The rights of our stockholders are generally governed by Delaware law, our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws (each as amended and restated in effect as of the date hereof).
This exhibit describes the general terms of the following two classes of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended: our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and warrants exercisable for one-fortieth of one share of our common stock.
This exhibit is a summary and is not intended to be a complete description of the rights and preferences of such securities. The terms of these securities may also be affected by the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”). Our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws are incorporated by reference or filed as an exhibit to the Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this exhibit is a part, and amendments or restatements of each will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) in future periodic or current reports in accordance with the rules of the SEC. The summary below is qualified in its entirety by reference to our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to our Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this exhibit is a part.
The total number of authorized shares of our common stock is 100,000,000 shares, $0.0001 par value per share. The total number of “blank check” authorized shares of our preferred stock is 5,000,000 shares, $0.0001 par value per share. There are no shares of preferred stock currently outstanding.
The terms of our preferred stock are not included herein as such preferred stock is not registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act.
Voting Rights. Each share of our common stock is entitled to one vote on all stockholder matters. Shares of our common stock do not possess any cumulative voting rights.
Except for the election of directors, if a quorum is present, an action on a matter is approved if it receives the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of capital stock present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the matter, unless otherwise required by applicable law, Delaware law, our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended or Bylaws, as amended. The election of directors will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast in respect of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote, meaning that the nominees with the greatest number of votes cast, even if less than a majority, will be elected. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to, and may be impacted by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we have designated, or may designate and issue in the future.
Our board of directors is divided into two classes, each of which will generally serve for a term of two years with only one class of directors being elected in each year. There is no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voted for the election of directors can elect all of the directors.
Dividend Rights. Each share of our common stock is entitled to equal dividends and distributions per share with respect to the common stock when, as and if declared by our Board of Directors, subject to any preferential or other rights of any outstanding preferred stock.
Liquidation and Dissolution Rights. Upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, our common stock will be entitled to receive pro rata on a share-for-share basis, the assets available for distribution to the stockholders after payment of liabilities and payment of preferential and other amounts, if any, payable on any outstanding preferred stock.
Fully Paid Status. All outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock are validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.
Listing. Our common stock is listed and traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ATNF”.
Other Matters. No holder of any shares of our common stock has a preemptive right to subscribe for any of our securities, nor are any shares of our common stock subject to redemption or convertible into other securities.
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date and do not intend to pay cash dividends prior to the completion of a business combination. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition subsequent to completion of a business combination. The payment of any cash dividends subsequent to a business combination will be within the discretion of our board of directors at such time. In addition, our board of directors is not currently contemplating and does not anticipate declaring any stock dividends in the foreseeable future. Further, if we incur any indebtedness, our ability to declare dividends may be limited by restrictive covenants we may agree to in connection therewith.
Each warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one-fortieth of one share of our common stock at a price of $5.75 per 1/40th of one share or $230 per whole share, subject to adjustment as discussed below, at any time commencing on December 6, 2020 (30 days after our initial business combination) and ending on November 6, 2025 (five years after our initial business combination), at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption or liquidation. If a warrant holder holds 40 warrants, such warrants will be exercisable for one share of our common stock. No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the warrants and warrants must be exercised for whole shares only.
We will not be obligated to deliver any shares of common stock pursuant to the exercise of a warrant and will have no obligation to settle such warrant exercise unless a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of common stock underlying the warrants is then effective and a prospectus relating thereto is current, subject to our satisfying our obligations described below with respect to registration. No warrant will be exercisable for cash or on a cashless basis, and we will not be obligated to issue any shares to holders seeking to exercise their warrants, unless the issuance of the shares upon such exercise is registered or qualified under the securities laws of the state of the exercising holder, unless an exemption is available. In the event that the conditions in the two immediately preceding sentences are not satisfied with respect to a warrant, the holder of such warrant will not be entitled to exercise such warrant and such warrant may have no value and expire worthless. In no event will we be required to net cash settle any warrant. In the event that a registration statement is not effective for the exercised warrants, the purchaser of a unit containing such warrant will have paid the full purchase price for the unit solely for the share of common stock underlying such unit.
We agreed that as soon as practicable, but in no event later than thirty (30) days, after the closing of our initial Business Combination (which closing date was November 6, 2020), we would use our best efforts to file with the SEC a registration statement for the registration, under the Securities Act, of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants, which registration statement was filed with the SEC on July 20, 2021, and declared effective by the SEC on July 27, 2021.
Notwithstanding the above, if our common stock is at the time of any exercise of a warrant not listed on a national securities exchange such that it satisfies the definition of a “covered security” under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act, we may, at our option, require holders of public warrants who exercise their warrants to do so on a “cashless basis” in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act and, in the event we so elect, we will not be required to file or maintain in effect a registration statement or register or qualify the shares under blue sky laws, and in the event we do not so elect, we will use our best efforts to register or qualify the shares under the blue sky laws of the state of residence in those states in which the warrants were initially offered by us in our initial public offering.
Once the warrants become exercisable, we may call the warrants for redemption:
|●||in whole and not in part;|
|●||at a price of $0.01 per warrant;|
|●||upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption (the “30-day redemption period”) to each warrant holder; and|
|●||if, and only if, the reported last sale price of the common stock equals or exceeds $230.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send to the notice of redemption to the warrant holders.|
If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may not exercise our redemption right if the issuance of shares of common stock upon exercise of the warrants is not exempt from registration or qualification under applicable state blue sky laws or we are unable to affect such registration or qualification. We will use our best efforts to register or qualify the shares of common stock under the blue-sky laws of the state of residence in those states in which the warrants were initially offered by us in our initial public offering.
We have established the last of the redemption criterion discussed above to prevent a redemption call unless there is at the time of the call a significant premium to the warrant exercise price. If the foregoing conditions are satisfied and we issue a notice of redemption of the warrants, each warrant holder will be entitled to exercise his, her or its warrant prior to the scheduled redemption date. However, the price of the common stock may fall below the $720.00 redemption trigger price as well as the $230.00 warrant exercise price (for whole shares) after the redemption notice is issued.
If we call the warrants for redemption as described above, our management will have the option to require any holder that wishes to exercise his, her or its warrant to do so on a “cashless basis.” If our management takes advantage of this option, all holders of warrants would pay the exercise price by surrendering their warrants for that number of shares of common stock equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (x) the product of the number of shares of common stock underlying the warrants, multiplied by the difference between the exercise price of the warrants and the “fair market value” by (y) the fair market value. The “fair market value” shall mean the average reported last sale price of the common stock for the 10 trading days ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the notice of redemption is sent to the holders of warrants. If our management takes advantage of this option, the notice of redemption will contain the information necessary to calculate the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise of the warrants, including the “fair market value” in such case. Requiring a cashless exercise in this manner would reduce the number of shares to be issued and thereby lessen the dilutive effect of a warrant redemption.
If the number of outstanding shares of common stock is increased by a stock dividend payable in shares of common stock, or by a split-up of shares of common stock or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such stock dividend, split-up or similar event, the number of shares of common stock issuable on exercise of each warrant will be increased in proportion to such increase in the outstanding shares of common stock. A rights offering to holders of common stock entitling holders to purchase shares of common stock at a price less than the fair market value will be deemed a stock dividend of a number of shares of common stock equal to the product of (i) the number of shares of common stock actually sold in such rights offering (or issuable under any other equity securities sold in such rights offering that are convertible into or exercisable for common stock) multiplied by (ii) one (1) minus the quotient of (x) the price per share of common stock paid in such rights offering divided by (y) the fair market value. For these purposes (i) if the rights offering is for securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock, in determining the price payable for common stock, there will be taken into account any consideration received for such rights, as well as any additional amount payable upon exercise or conversion and (ii) fair market value means the volume weighted average price of common stock as reported during the ten (10) trading day period ending on the trading day prior to the first date on which the shares of common stock trade on the applicable exchange or in the applicable market, regular way, without the right to receive such rights.
In addition, if we, at any time while the warrants are outstanding and unexpired, pay a dividend or make a distribution in cash, securities or other assets to the holders of common stock on account of such shares of common stock (or other shares of our capital stock into which the warrants are convertible), other than (a) as described above, (b) certain ordinary cash dividends, (c) to satisfy the redemption rights of the holders of common stock in connection with a proposed initial business combination, (d) as a result of the repurchase of shares of common stock by us if the proposed initial business combination is presented to our stockholders for approval, or (e) in connection with the redemption of our public shares upon our failure to complete our initial business combination, then the warrant exercise price will be decreased, effective immediately after the effective date of such event, by the amount of cash and/or the fair market value of any securities or other assets paid on each share of common stock in respect of such event.
If the number of outstanding shares of our common stock is decreased by a consolidation, combination, reverse stock split or reclassification of shares of common stock or other similar event, then, on the effective date of such consolidation, combination, reverse stock split, reclassification or similar event, the number of shares of common stock issuable on exercise of each warrant will be decreased in proportion to such decrease in outstanding shares of common stock.
Whenever the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants is adjusted, as described above, the warrant exercise price will be adjusted by multiplying the warrant exercise price immediately prior to such adjustment by a fraction (x) the numerator of which will be the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants immediately prior to such adjustment, and (y) the denominator of which will be the number of shares of common stock so purchasable immediately thereafter.
In case of any reclassification or reorganization of the outstanding shares of common stock (other than those described above or that solely affects the par value of such shares of common stock), or in the case of any merger or consolidation of us with or into another corporation (other than a consolidation or merger in which we are the continuing corporation and that does not result in any reclassification or reorganization of our outstanding shares of common stock), or in the case of any sale or conveyance to another corporation or entity of the assets or other property of us as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in connection with which we are dissolved, the holders of the warrants will thereafter have the right to purchase and receive, upon the basis and upon the terms and conditions specified in the warrants and in lieu of the shares of our common stock immediately theretofore purchasable and receivable upon the exercise of the rights represented thereby, the kind and amount of shares of stock or other securities or property (including cash) receivable upon such reclassification, reorganization, merger or consolidation, or upon a dissolution following any such sale or transfer, that the holder of the warrants would have received if such holder had exercised their warrants immediately prior to such event. However, if such holders were entitled to exercise a right of election as to the kind or amount of securities, cash or other assets receivable upon such consolidation or merger, then the kind and amount of securities, cash or other assets for which each warrant will become exercisable will be deemed to be the weighted average of the kind and amount received per share by such holders in such consolidation or merger that affirmatively make such election, and if a tender, exchange or redemption offer has been made to and accepted by such holders (other than a tender, exchange or redemption offer made by us in connection with redemption rights held by our stockholders as provided for in the our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation or as a result of the repurchase of shares of common stock by us if a proposed initial business combination is presented to the stockholders of the Company for approval) under circumstances in which, upon completion of such tender or exchange offer, the maker thereof, together with members of any group (within the meaning of Rule 13d-5(b)(1) under the Exchange Act) of which such maker is a part, and together with any affiliate or associate of such maker (within the meaning of Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act) and any members of any such group of which any such affiliate or associate is a part, own beneficially (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of common stock, the holder of a warrant will be entitled to receive the highest amount of cash, securities or other property to which such holder would actually have been entitled as a stockholder if such warrant holder had exercised the warrant prior to the expiration of such tender or exchange offer, accepted such offer and all of the common stock held by such holder had been purchased pursuant to such tender or exchange offer, subject to adjustments (from and after the consummation of such tender or exchange offer) as nearly equivalent as possible to the adjustments provided for in the warrant agreement. Additionally, if less than 70% of the consideration receivable by the holders of common stock in such a transaction is payable in the form of common stock in the successor entity that is listed for trading on a national securities exchange or is quoted in an established over-the-counter market, or is to be so listed for trading or quoted immediately following such event, and if the registered holder of the warrant properly exercises the warrant within thirty days following public disclosure of such transaction, the warrant exercise price will be reduced as specified in the warrant agreement based on the per share consideration minus Black-Scholes Warrant Value (as defined in the warrant agreement) of the warrant in order to determine and realize the option value component of the warrant. This formula is to compensate the warrant holder for the loss of the option value portion of the warrant value due to the requirement that the warrant holder exercise the warrant within 30 days of the event. The Black-Scholes model is an accepted pricing model for estimating fair market value where no quoted market price for an instrument is available.
The warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. You should review a copy of the warrant agreement, which is filed as (or incorporated by reference as) an exhibit to our Annual Report on Form 10-K of which this exhibit is a part, for a complete description of the terms and conditions applicable to the warrants. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of public warrants.
The warrants may be exercised upon surrender of the warrant certificate on or prior to the expiration date at the offices of the warrant agent, with the exercise form on the reverse side of the warrant certificate completed and executed as indicated, accompanied by full payment of the exercise price (or on a cashless basis, if applicable), by certified or official bank check payable to us, for the number of warrants being exercised. The warrant holders do not have the rights or privileges of holders of common stock and any voting rights until they exercise their warrants and receive shares of common stock. After the issuance of shares of common stock upon exercise of the warrants, each holder will be entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted on by stockholders.
Warrants may be exercised only for a whole number of shares of common stock. No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the warrants. If, upon exercise of the warrants, a holder would be entitled to receive a fractional interest in a share, we will, upon exercise, round down to the nearest whole number the number of shares of common stock to be issued to the warrant holder. As a result, warrant holders not holding multiples of 40 warrants must sell any odd number of warrants in order to obtain full value from the fractional interest that will not be issued.
Listing of Securities
The warrants are listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol “ATNFW”.
Anti-Takeover Effects Under Section 203 of Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:
|-||before such date, the Board of Directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;|
|-||upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85 percent of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or an exchange offer; or|
|-||on or after such date, the business combination is approved by our Board of Directors and authorized at an annual or a special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3 percent of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.|
In general, Section 203 defines “business combination” to include the following:
|-||any merger or consolidation involving the corporation or any direct or indirect majority owned subsidiary of the corporation and the interested stockholder or any other corporation, partnership, unincorporated association, or other entity if the merger or consolidation is caused by the interested stockholder and as a result of such merger or consolidation the transaction is not excepted as described above;|
|-||any sale, transfer, pledge, or other disposition (in one transaction or a series) of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;|
|-||subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;|
|-||any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or|
|-||the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loss, advances, guarantees, pledges, or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.|
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or a person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15 percent or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
A Delaware corporation may “opt out” of these provisions with an express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or an express provision in its certificate of incorporation or bylaws resulting from a stockholders’ amendment approved by at least a majority of the outstanding voting shares. We have not opted out of these provisions. As a result, mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts of us may be discouraged or prevented.
Anti-Takeover Effects Under our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Exclusive forum for certain lawsuits
Our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against directors, officers and employees for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing such suit will be deemed to have consented to service of process on such stockholder’s counsel. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction over any such action or proceeding, the sole and exclusive forum for such action or proceeding will be another court in the State of Delaware, or if no court in the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware, in each such case, unless the Court of Chancery (or such other state or federal court located within the State of Delaware, as applicable) has dismissed a prior action by the same plaintiff asserting the same claims because such court lacked personal jurisdiction over an indispensable party named as a defendant therein. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the forum selection provision discussed above will apply to derivative actions or proceedings brought on our behalf and arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, although our stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision in connection with any such derivative action or proceeding arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, and it is possible that a court could find the forum selection provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in such a case.
Special meeting of stockholders
Our Bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority vote of our board of directors, by our Chief Executive Officer or by our Chairman.
Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations
Our Bylaws provide that stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders, must provide timely notice of their intent in writing. Separately, pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act, proposals seeking inclusion in our annual proxy statement must comply with the notice periods contained therein. Our Bylaws also specify certain requirements as to the form and content of a stockholders’ meeting. These provisions may preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders and may also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
Director terms and removal of directors
Pursuant to our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation, our Board of Directors is a classified Board of Directors, as a result of which our Board of Directors is divided into two classes, with each class serving for staggered two-year terms and directors can only be removed for ‘cause’.
Action by written consent
Our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation prohibits stockholder action via any written consent to action without meeting.
Vacancies on the Board of Directors
Our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of preferred stock and unless otherwise required by law or resolution of our board of directors, vacancies on the board of directors arising through death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or removal, an increase in the number of directors or otherwise may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum.
No cumulative voting
Our amended and restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws do not permit cumulative voting in the election of directors. Cumulative voting allows a stockholder to vote a portion or all of its shares for one or more candidates for seats on the board of directors. Without cumulative voting, a minority stockholder may not be able to gain as many seats on our board of directors as the stockholder would be able to gain if cumulative voting were permitted. The absence of cumulative voting makes it more difficult for a minority stockholder to gain a seat on our board of directors to influence our board’s decision regarding a takeover.